Oil/Water Separation

Marshmallow-like gels usually have strong hydrophobicity and oleophiliicity. They can be used oil/water separation media like sponges, removing organic compounds from water by absorbing them and then releasing them upon being squeezed out.


Surface-treated VTMS-VMDMS gels have superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity on any cut surface. Novel applications to new antifouling and self-cleaning surfaces would be developed by carefully tuning the surface energy and roughness of the monolith.

Thermal insulating / LN2 retention

Marshmallow-like gels exhibit a low thermal conductivity of about 30 mW m−1K−1. It can be used as a simple container for cryopreserved embryos by filling into a thermos bottle and absorbing LN2.

Giant vesicle (liposome) generation

By squeezing a lipid-coated marshmallow-like gel in a buffer, giant (multilamellar) vesicles are efficiently produced.


  1. Gen Hayase, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Masashi Fukuchi, Hironori Kaji and Kazuki Nakanishi, “Facile Synthesis of Marshmallow-like Macroporous Gels Usable under Harsh Conditions for the Separation of Oil and Water”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2013, 52, (7), 1986-1989. doi:10.1002/anie.201207969
  2. Gen Hayase, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, George Hasegawa, Ayaka Maeno, Hironori Kaji and Kazuki Nakanishi, “A Superamphiphobic Macroporous Silicone Monolith with Marshmallow-like Flexibility”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2013, 52, (41), 10788–10791. doi:10.1002/anie.201304169
  3. Gen Hayase, Yasutaka Ohya, “Marshmallow-like silicone gels as flexible thermal insulators and liquid nitrogen retention materials and their application in containers for cryopreserved embryos”, Appl. Mater. Today 2017, 9, 560-565. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2017.10.004
  4. Gen Hayase, Shin-ichiro M. Nomura, “Large-Scale Preparation of Giant Vesicles by Squeezing a Lipid-Coated Marshmallow-Like Silicone Gel in a Buffer”, Langmuir 2018, 34, (37), 11021-11026. doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b01801